We investigate the solvatochromic effect of a Fe-based spin-crossover (SCO) compound via ambient pressure soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (AP-XAS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). AP-XAS provides the direct evidence of the spin configuration for the Fe(II) 3d states of the SCO material upon in situ exposure to specific gas or vapor mixtures; concurrent changes in nanoscale topography and mechanical characteristics are revealed via AFM imaging and AFM-based force spectroscopy, respectively. We find that exposing the SCO material to gaseous helium promotes an effective decrease of the transition temperature of its surface layers, while the exposure to methanol vapor causes opposite surfacial and bulk solvatochromic effects. Surfacial solvatochromism is accompanied by a dramatic reduction of the surface layers stiffness. We propose a rationalization of the observed effects based on interfacial dehydration and solvation phenomena.
The conduction and optoelectronic properties of transparent conductive oxides can be largely modified by intentional inclusion of dopants over a very large range of concentrations. However, the simultaneous presence of structural defects results in an unpredictable complexity that prevents a clear identification of chemical and structural properties of the final samples. By exploiting the unique chemical sensitivity of Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectra and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure in combination with Density Functional Theory, we determine the contribution to the spectroscopic response of defects in Al-doped ZnO films. Satellite peaks in O1s and modifications at the O K-edge allow the determination of the presence of H embedded in ZnO and the very low concentration of Zn vacancies and O interstitials in undoped ZnO. Contributions coming from substitutional and (above the solubility limit) interstitial Al atoms have been clearly identified and have been related to changes in the oxide stoichiometry and increased oxygen coordination, together with small lattice distortions. In this way defects and doping in oxide films can be controlled, in order to tune their properties and improve their performances.
In this work we investigated in detail the effects of nitric acid on the surface chemistry of two carbons, activated by steam and by phosphoric acid, meant to identify the nature and the concentration of the oxidized surface species. To this aim, the oxidized carbons were characterized by means of a large number of complementary techniques, including micro-Raman spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, Boehm titration method, 13C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance infrared and inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy. Carboxylic and carboxylate groups are mainly formed, the latter stabilized by the extended conjugation of the π electrons and being more abundant on small and irregular graphitic platelets. We demonstrated that the presence of oxygen-containing groups acts against the palladium dispersion and causes the appearance of an appreciable induction time in hydrogenation reactions. The carbon with more oxygenated surface species (and in particular more carboxylate groups) must be chosen in the hydrogenation of polar substrates, while it is detrimental to the hydrogenation of nonpolar substrates.